The EzyEducation website uses cookies to help ensure we give you the best experience.
If you continue without changing your settings, we assume that you are happy to receive all cookies on the EzyEducation website.

Continue

# Economic Terms

### Returns to Scale

Illustrates what happens to the level of output if the firm increases their inputs by a proportionate scale. There are three types of return to scale: Increasing, Decreasing or Constant. It is an indicator for a firm of how productive the scaling up of inputs has been.

### Ringfencing

Occurs when a portion of a company's assets or profits are financially separated without necessarily being operated as a separate entity, normally for regulatory purposes.

For instance in the banking world ringfencing is carried out in universal banks to prevent losses on the investment bank activities affecting customers in the commerical bank side of the bank i.e. it is a succint way of structuring the bank to isolate risks and loses in each of the seperate activities that banks undertake. This is highlighted in the diagram below as the ringfence prevents losses from one subsidary of the bank affecting the others.

### Risk averse

A person who actively seeks to avoid or reduce risks.

### Risk taker

A person who who is not averse to taking risks and actively takes them.

### Rose Effect

Is the perceived increase in intra-union trade that should occur when a country decides to become part of a single currency.

Below is the logical chain of reasoning for how the rose effect comes about for a country. The adoption of a single currency removes any instability by eliminating foreign exchange risk and therefore this encourages countries to invest and trade with each other, eventually making the net benefits for that country of joining a single currency greater. It was argued by Andrew Rose (the founder of this theory) that this effect could be as large as a 40% of GDP increase in trade.

Below is a diagram to show the net benefits increase that comes with higher intra-union trade.

### Rule of Thumb

A mental shortcut which enables fast computation of a decision. For instance a decision that all agents have to make is 'how much to save?'. Clearly this depends on lots of different individual characteristics suc as income, future income, investment risks and so on. But if the individual had a rule of thumb to always save 10% of income this would remove any uncertainty in this decision process.

Display #